What Is Weather Variation?
- The ENSO Cyle
- A comparison of the area within a risk contour
- The IRI Project
- High Precipitation in the South Pacific and Inter-Tropical Convergence Zones
- Latitude dependence of precipitation over the southern oceans
- Temperature Variations in the Solar Atmosphere
- Climate Change and Land Use
- The night temperature fluctuation
- Predicting the future of Earth's weather
- Common Cause Variation
- MeTARs in the United States
- Weather Forecasting
The climate system gets most of its energy from the sun. The climate system is sending energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy is what determines Earth's energy budget.
Earth's energy budget is positive when incoming energy is greater than outgoing energy. Earth experiences cooling if more energy goes out. The weather on Earth's climate system is affected by the energy moving through it.
The climate of a region is determined by long-term averages and variability of weather. Natural processes in the climate system can alter the distribution of energy. The Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation are examples of variability in ocean basins.
Climate variability can be caused by external forcing, when events outside of the climate system's components still change the system. The oceans and ice caps respond more slowly than others in the climate system. When volcanic ash reflects sunlight, the atmospheric cooling is an example of fast change.
After atmospheric warming, the expansion of ocean water is slow. A combination is1-6556, which is sudden loss of albedo in the ocean as sea ice is melting, followed by gradual thermal expansion of the water. Climate variability can be caused by internal processes.
The ENSO Cyle
The ENSO cyle is a phenomenon. The distribution of tropical rain and atmospheric circulation features is affected by the changes in sea surface temperatures. The intensity and position of jet streams and storm activity at higher latitudes are changed by the ENSO cycle.
The MJO is often variable, with periods of moderate-to-strong activity followed by periods of little or no activity. The northern Hemisphere has the highest level of MJO activity in the winter and early spring. Waves are moving through the Pacific Ocean.
A comparison of the area within a risk contour
The area within a specific risk contour is evaluated to see if there are differences in the risk predictions. The area covered by the 10-6 contours is calculated in Table 2.
The IRI Project
The IRI was established as a result of a cooperative agreement between the Climate Program Office and Columbia University. It is located at the Lamont Campus of The Earth Institute.
High Precipitation in the South Pacific and Inter-Tropical Convergence Zones
The South Pacific Convergence Zone and the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone are regions of high precipitation. The West Pacific monsoon can cause high precipitation over the western Pacific. The South Pacific Convergence Zone is formed by winds.
Latitude dependence of precipitation over the southern oceans
The great differences from one period to the next are not shown in average figures. A farmer would much prefer a reliable though modest rain to an irregular sequence of floods and a similar average, and most of the fluctuations of crop yields is due to the variability of rain. There is a steady increase in precipitation over the southern oceans with latitude. In winter, there is a maximum of 38 degrees of precipitation.
Temperature Variations in the Solar Atmosphere
The temperature variations are not related to movement or shape of the earth. Water absorbs and emits less energy than land. Large, deep water bodies tend to have cooler temperatures.
Water is effective in suppressing temperature changes, but wet soil is equally effective. Thick vegetation has some water in it and protects against heat transfer between the ground and the atmosphere. The temperature controls are affected by thevailing wind.
In an area where the winds are from large water bodies, the temperature changes are small. Most islands have fairly constant temperatures. The temperature changes are more pronounced in areas with dry, barren regions.
An inverted plane develops near the ground on clear, cool nights. The ground is cooler than the air. The temperature in the air above the ground is very little.
Climate Change and Land Use
There is a need for large amounts of land. The land may be needed for other purposes. Some desert land can release particulates and organisms that cause diseases.
The indirect effects are based on the difference of direct effects. There might be a change in land demands for food or for biofuel crops. Responses might include an indirect effect of taxes such as a carbon tax.
The impact of climate on solar energy depends on the level of change in the climate and on the fraction of energy eventually supplied by solar systems. There is little impact if the relative amount of solar energy is small. dependence on a large fraction of energy from solar plants would increase sensitivity to many factors
The night temperature fluctuation
The night temperatures are not allowed to drop to that level as they would have done. A cloudy day is likely to have a smaller daily range of temperature than a clear day. The cloud cover in the sky has a control over the temperature.
The maximum temperature for the day is reduced when the sun is out because the solar radiation to the ground is blocked. The fluctuations of daily range of temperature are related to atmospheric stability. If there is an inverted layer in the atmosphere at a small distance from the ground, the heat from the earth has to warm the air.
The highest temperatures over the ocean are recorded at half an hour past noon, while on the land it takes about two to three hours to get to the maximum temperature. The minimum and maximum temperatures on the water are different from those on the land. The places that are far away from the ocean have higher temperature ranges.
The air is more humid and the temperature is less predictable. In the deserts, the daily range of temperature is higher than in the humid regions. The local radiation budget is related to the temperature and the latitude is an important control over the temperature.
Predicting the future of Earth's weather
The degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or storm, clear or cloudy, is called the weather. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the planet's atmosphere and is just below the stratosphere. Climate is the term for the average of atmospheric conditions over a longer period of time.
Studying how the weather works on other planets has helped in understanding how weather works on Earth. Jupiter's Great Red Spot is anti-cyclonic storm that has existed for at least 300 years. The weather is not limited to planets.
A star's corona is being lost to space, creating a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System. The solar wind is the movement of mass from the Sun. Predicting future conditions is no longer an all-human endeavor, but rather a model used to determine barometric pressure, current weather conditions, and sky condition.
Common Cause Variation
You can chart common cause variation. Product differences might be caused by air humidity in the factory mentioned before. You can see the differences over time. You can compare that chart to the weather bureau humidity data.
MeTARs in the United States
55 minutes past the hour is when the United States issues METARs. They are issued twice per hour in other States.
You can experience weather on any given day. It is the state of the atmosphere at a particular location over the short-term. Climate is the average of the weather patterns in a location over a long period of time.
The weather can change quickly from one moment to the next. It can be raining and snowing at the same time. It can be raining one side of town and sunny on the other.